How to write dissertation

Method and advice

The dissertation consists in conducting a personal and reasoned reflection based on a literary problematic resulting from the French program. To develop his argument, the candidate relies on the texts he has on theobjects of studyof the first class, as well as on his reading and personal culture.

The essay focuses on genres or themes related to the first class program. The subject that is put to you invites you to use the texts of the corpus.

Official text

The general criteria that apply to the dissertation will be recalled:

understanding of the subject and its problem;

exploitation of the corpus;

knowledge of the object of study and its issues;

relevant mobilization of texts or works read and studied;

argumentation and organization of the subject;

readability, correctness of expression and spelling.

Analyze the subject

For example, the subject of the essay may ask you to support, refute or give your opinion on a point of view. The subject may also be in the form of a question.

Sample essay topic:

In the egoistic dictionary of French literature, Charles Dantzig states: “Poetry is not found only in verse“. You will tell if you share his point of view in a development argued, relying on the texts of the corpus, those you have studied in class or read personally.

Essay Topic, Technology Series

Analyze the subject:

All the words of the subject are important. It must therefore read carefully several times and highlight the keywords. The verb for example can clearly indicate the point of view to adopt (“support“, refute “…).

It is then necessary to clear the problematic of the subject. The problem is the question the subject asks you to answer. This can be explicit or not in the subject. Identifying the problem is essential to avoid the offtopic trap.

Look for the arguments and develop the plan

Find the arguments:

We must look for logical arguments and convincing, responding to the problem and the requirements of the subject. These arguments can be based on the texts of the corpus, but it is not a question of repeating those which they contain. The search for arguments must be done through your literary knowledge and your knowledge of the objects of study in the program of the first class. This knowledge also allows you to illustrate your arguments with specific examples.

Write down your ideas as they come. Once you have found all your arguments and examples illustrating them, rank them. Then reread the subject and make sure your arguments are in line with it.

Attention, the dissertation is a question of course, it is not necessary to recite the course.

Elaborate the plan:

There are different types of plan:

dialectic (thesis, antithesis, synthesis),

analytical (description of a situation or explanation, analysis of the causes or illustration, analysis of the consequences or commentary),

thematic (reflection on one (or several) notion (s), it is a question of answering progressively to the question of the subject by presenting various arguments in an ordered way). The thematic plan is not a catalog of ideas, but a series of logically articulated arguments.

The dialectical plan is rather to choose to discuss a point of view, the analytical and thematic plans when the subject does not lead to the debate.

Conventionally, the plan must consist of 2 large parties each having 3 subparts or 3 major parties each having 2 subparts (6 subparts in total).

The detailed plan, which you draft, should consist of explicit titles of the parties and subparts, arguments and examples that you will use to illustrate your arguments.

In order to be convincing, inside a game you must first expose the least important and most important arguments at the end. Remember that the purpose of a dissertation is to convince.

Write the essay

It is advisable to write the introduction and the conclusion entirely in draft, but to write the development directly to clean to save time.

The essay must be fully written. Do not use abbreviation, telegraphic style, numbering, titles.

The wording must be clear and simple. Adopt a sober style, avoid sentences too long, too convoluted. Make efforts to use vocabulary, accurate, clear and quality.


Opening sentence: it is a general consideration, but it must of course be related to the subject (for example the literary context)

Quote the subject: it is necessary to copy the subject completely (in quotation marks). If the subject really is too long, rephrase it.

Exposing the controversy that emerges from the subject

Clearly announce the plan

Development: – Follow the detailed plan you have developed

Do not name your parties.

Do not write in the first person. Conventionally, it is better to useweoron“.

A paragraph should ideally follow the following scheme: thesis -> argument -> example.

Develop the examples sufficiently, they are an integral part of the argumentation.

You have to separate the main parts of your dissertation with transitional sentences that make it possible to articulate the different parts in a logical way. Development must appear as a logical sequence of arguments, and especially not as a catalog of ideas.

Conclusion: – Resumption of most of the dissertation

Invitation to go further (to offer the reader an enlargement of the reflection, without addressing a whole other subject.)

The purpose of the conclusion is to close the duty. It must give answers to the questions raised in the introduction and developed in the dissertation.


The layout should visually reveal the structure of your essay.

Skip 2 lines between introduction and development and between development and conclusion.

Jump 1 line between each major part of the development. Start the subparts with a prominent paragraph.

In short

Clear well the problematic of the subject.

The dissertation is an exercise in argumentation.

The dissertation is based on your literary knowledge.

Development is not a catalog of ideas, but a succession of arguments logically articulated and presented in a logical order.

Watch out for the offtopic.